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Table Of Content

1. Introduction
2. Clients and Servers
3. IP Addresses
4. Network Hubs and Switches
5. Routers and Firewalls


Introduction to networking

This document covers basic fundamentals of how networking works, approaches to use different devices to develop networks. Computer networking has been in existence for many years, and since time has passed the technologies are getting to be faster and less costly. Networks contain various devices—computers, switches, routers—connected together by cables or wireless signals. Understanding the basic principles of how networks constructed is an important help building a wireless network within a community or neighborhood.

This module covers the concepts of:

Clients and Servers

how services for instance e-mail and webpages connect using networks.
IP addresses—how devices over a network are available.
Network hubs, switches and cables—the hardware play blocks of any network.
Routers and firewalls—how to prepare and control the flow of traffic using a network.
Reading through these components should take between 30 minutes to an hour. Exploring the activities and specifics of the subject using a group will need longer.

An important relationship:

on networks is the one about the server as well as the client. A server is usually a computer that holds content and services for instance a website, a media file, or even a chat application. A good example of a server could be the computer keep website for Google’s search page. The server holds that page, and sends out when requested.

A client is usually:

a different computer, including your laptop or cellphone, that requests to see, download, or make use of the content. The client can connect spanning a network to change information. For instance, whenever you request Google’s search page using your web browser, your computer would be the client.

In the example below:

two computers are connected as well as an Ethernet cable. These computers is able to see each other and communicate on the cable. The client computer requests a website through the server computer. The website is delivered on the server, and displayed on the client’s internet browser.

IP Addresses

In order to send and direct data across a network, computers have to be able to identify destinations and origins. This identification can be an IP—Internet Protocol—address. An IP address merely set of four numbers between 1 and 254, separated by dots. An example of an IP address is

An IP address:

An IP address is comparable to a street address. Parts of the address describe wherein the world the structure is located, another part narrows it to a state or city, then your area within that state or city, then this location at work.

Below we could see 192.168.1 Street. On it are three houses:

The complete addresses for every of these houses is:,, and

There will vary classifications:

There will vary classifications, or sorts of IP addresses. A network could be public, or it could be private. Public IP addresses can be found anywhere on the Internet. Private IP addresses will not be, and quite a few are typically hidden behind a machine with a public IP address.


Here you can see an example:

a street with two buildings with public IP addresses—representing computers with addresses which can be visible for the entire Internet. These buildings could be anywhere in the entire world, however addresses are complete, and we know exactly where they’re and can send messages directly to them.

To see an illustration:

To see an illustration of how public and private IP addresses are generally used, let’s take another look at 192.168.1 Street. We have a new building at work. That building carries a public IP address, plus a private IP address. There is also a fence that blocks the remainder of the Internet from seeing and passing messages to addresses in the pub.

The postal building:

The postal building controls messages that travel between Internet and also the street, monitoring messages that leave the highway, and directs return messages for the right house. On the path, they have the address, additionally, on the Internet it’s the address

Network Hubs and Switches

Traditionally, computers are linked with each other using cables—creating a network. The cable used generally is Ethernet, which consists of four pairs of wires within a plastic jacket. It is physically a lot like phone cables, but they can transport considerably more data.

But cables and computers alone tend not to make a good network, so one early solution ended up being use a network hub. The Ethernet cables on the computer get connected to the device comparable to the hub of any bike wheel—where each of the spokes add up in the center.

An illustration showing:

An illustration showing how a hub works is shown below. Computer A would like to send a note to computer B. It sends what it’s all about through the Ethernet cable towards the hub, then a hub repeats the material to the many connected computers.

A network employing:

A network employing a hub can decelerate if many computers are sending messages, simply because they may make an effort to send messages simultaneously and confuse the hub. To help on this problem, networks started use another device known as a switch. Instead of repeating all messages which come in, a switch only sends what it’s all about to the intended destination. This eliminates the unnecessary repetition in the hub.

Using a switch, computer A sends a communication to computer B—the other computers will not see the material. Those computers can send other messages as well without interfering.

Switches have a limitation:

Switches have a limitation though—they only know in regards to the addresses of exercise machines that is plugged right into them. So, you may only send messages to your small number of devices—however many ports the switch has! If you need to send a note to a computer on another network, it will need to become sent by having a router, which we discuss next.

Routers and Firewalls

Routers perform the majority of the efforts on a network – they’ve created the decisions about all of the messages that travel around the network, and getting in touch with pass messages back and forth outside networks. There are three main functions:

Separate and Bridge:

Routers separate networks into sections, or bridge different networks together, as we see within the example above—the private network of 192.168.1 Street is bridged to the Internet which has a public IP address.

Assign IPs:

They can assign IP addresses. In the illustration of 192.168.1 Street, in case a new house is constructed on the street, it might get no matter the next highest house number available. In the case of routers, they assign IP addresses using DHCP—Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol.

Firewall and Protect:

They can filter messages or keep users away from private networks. Most routers employ a Firewall built-in. This is a software function that keeps unwanted messages from reaching the computers with this report, or private part, with the network.

Control Panel (cPanel)

1.What is: cPanel?

cPanel is really a web based hosting key pad provided by many hosting providers to online marketers allowing them to manage their websites from a net based interface. This program gives users a graphical interface that they can control their portion in the Unix server. The tools provided are built to simplify running and controlling an internet site. It works on the tiered structure which allows different numbers of access. Administrators and owners can control different aspects with the server as well as the website directly through their browser. CPanel is often accessed using https on port 2083 or maybe by adding “/cpanel” towards the end in the host name. Depending on the hosting provider the cPanel will usually have some almost auto installer or package focused on content management systems like WordPress.

With WordPress installed, an end user can us cPanel to deal with the features provided by their WordPress hosting plan. Some of these popular features would be the ability to regulate databases, domains, mail accounts, and back ups. Software like cpanel, causes it to become extremely feasible for users to regulate their hosting with little if any technical familiarity with web hosting automatically without breaking anything.

2.What is cPanel Hosting?

cPanel hosting is basically Linux hosting which includes investing in cPanel. cPanel has its own pros and cons, nevertheless it works virtually in the most cases and creates a sensible choice when you’re searching for a control panel solution. Here’s what is available:


Easy to learn
Easy to use
Saves some time and money
Tried and tested
Includes software auto installers
Plenty of tutorials/support available online


Number of features might be overwhelming
Relatively very easy to accidentally change important settings
Some hosts run outdated software
Can will cost more and is rarely offered with free hosting

3.Alternatives to cPanel

There are thousands of options to cPanel around, and furthermore, as every hosting provider takes a different approach, you’ll ought to check with each potential host to obtain an idea of what cp solutions they’re using.

Here at Hostinger, we have now developed our personal custom cpanel, that is available with all web hosting service plans. It shares a couple of similarities with cPanel and allows us be more flexible while adapting to the needs of our users.

However, cPanel hosting can also be something that you will get at our sister company Hosting24. Annual and longer plans will include a free website name, so you can get each of the ingredients to write a website on the Internet which has a single purchase!

Ultimately, it doesn’t really matter whether you utilize cPanel or even an alternative, given that you’re in a position to accomplish what you would like. If you need your key pad to do something specific then double consult the provider.

4.cPanel Tutorial: How to Use cPanel

Different cPanel installations include cool features, though the good news is it’s pretty very easy to browse around and get to know all of the different sections. When you first join, you’ll end up watching some metrics that log your resource usage (for instance your CPU usage, your available space for storing, as well as your memory usage). These can offer you a useful method of keeping an eye on your website’s functionality.

Once you’ve familiarised yourself with the website’s performance, it’s time and energy to take a look at the several modules. We’ve provided a summary of the most typical cPanel modules below.

File Modules:
cPanel file management features

These modules enable you to directly upload and manage files from the inside cPanel while not having to use an FTP client. You can also specify privacy levels, make backups and much more. Common modules include:

Backup Wizard
Directory Privacy
Disk Usage
File Manager
FTP Accounts
FTP Connections
Web Disk

cPanel customization and preference features

This is to try and customize the layout of your respective cPanel installation making it better meet your needs. Common modules include:

Change Language
Change Main Domain
Getting Started Wizard
Manage Resources
Update Contact Info
Video Tutorials

VPS(Virtual Private Servers )

1.What is VPS Hosting?

A virtual private server (VPS) is often a cost-effective opportinity for a small business to realize more flexibility and efficiency than emerges with shared web hosting without the expense linked to running a dedicated server. Most small enterprises also don’t need all of the power of any dedicated server, so VPS comes with a good in-between option whenever you outgrow your website hosting. Get the power and suppleness of your own server devoid of the cost and complexity of managing outsourced hardware.

2.How Does a Virtual Private Server Work?

VPS and shared web hosting both share an individual server’s resources. But with shared enviroment, resources are shared equally between all users. This means the bandwidth any user has available will almost always be in flux, and every user won’t have just as much control over simply how much bandwidth they’ve already available at any given time.

VPS provides a more customized option which includes more treating your data and bandwidth usage. When you pick a VPS supplier and plan, you may select one which allows you having access to a maximum quantity of RAM, bandwidth, and server space, so you are able to select the amount you may need, as well as it will be yours to make use of at all times.

3.VPS Hosting-An Affordable Servers Soultion?

Many Webmasters have great difficulty when deciding on the perfect host company. There are thousands of providers and re sellers available, but making the correct decision demands more research than previously.
For any web based business, deciding on the correct hosting provider can indicate the difference between success and failure. If you have an business online and your website hosting plan is constantly on the crash – you’re ready consider a more reliable solution.
Switching into a VPS (Virtual Private Server) hosting package is a more reliable and cost-effective solution for ones business. In the past, if Webmasters wanted server hosting, needed to rent or get a dedicated server. Thanks to virtualization software, VPS hosting can store multiple virtual server environments one physical server. Each virtual server is totally isolated looking at the neighbors. Each VPS has their very own IP address which is seen as a unique server.
Why is VPS hosting less expensive than a dedicated server? A dedicated server is a psychical server that’s completely devoted one website or blog. Each server derives passion for valuable space from the datacentre. Also there would be the overheads of keeping the dedicated server running.
For example, if i said your business purchased 3 hosting. Each dedicated server consumes one rack of space from the datacentre. Now if you obtain 3 virtual hosting these are stored one physical server. You’re sharing the expenses of running one server inside a datacentre as an alternative to paying for three psychical hosting.
A VPS is a bit more environmentally friendly plus a good way of reducing your carbon footprint. A number of businesses keep their server on their work premises. Renting a virtual server in just a data centre keeps crucial computer data safe and secure.
Unlike a hosting that is shared package, each virtual server is entirely isolated through the other virtual servers. On a hosting that is shared package, when the server fails every website or blog on that server fails, but on virtual server your web presence continue to run. Virtual environments offer added security allowing the freedom and adaptability to manage your personal server.
Dedicated hosting provides better performance since you have your personal resources. Websites and blogs which use dedicated hosting get each year a faster rate of page up loads. High traffic websites and eCommerce websites will greatly gain from VPS hosting. When you have a spike of traffic your VPS package are able to cope better using the extra traffic.
A hosting that is shared package is a great place to start when you’ve got a website or blog. Overtime, your traffic will grow therefore will the requirements of your web presence. It’s important to contain the best hosting platform to your online presence.
If you’re start to outgrow your hosting that is shared place, it is time to consider server hosting.

4.What Are the Advantages of a VPS?

Every hosting solution features its own advantages and is particularly suitable for different stages of an business. But what on earth is VPS useful for? A VPS is useful for businesses that ‘re feeling constrained by their hosting that is shared plans but aren’t ready for—or can’t afford—a dedicated server. It’s ideally used in organizations that happen to be seeking:

More flexibility than shared web hosting: With a VPS, it is possible to customize your hardware and software configurations and run your applications.
Lower cost over a dedicated server: The provider can spread the expense of running tweaking the server across all businesses operating over a given machine. Depending on your host, monthly fees is usually as low as $20.
Better security than hosting that is shared: Because you aren’t sharing space with other people, their mistakes, faulty scripts or resource usage won’t get a new up-time or accessibility of one’s Web site.
Independent FTP and POP access: Again, other users’s using FTP and POP email don’t affect your access and speed.
Root access: Because a VPS functions being an independent server, you will get root access, which can be what you need to configure and install your own personal operating system along with applications. Shared hosting only offers you access to a directory within the shared server, which isn’t going to allow for software customization.
Lower technical knowledge requirement than the usual dedicated server: In most cases, you access your VPS through graphical user interface control panels, where you install and configure your applications. Dedicated servers usually require manual configuration.


What is WordPress hosting?

In the simplest sense, WordPress hosting is definitely hosting which has been optimized to improve meet WordPress’ performance and security needs. It also typically includes one-click WordPress installs so it will be easy to get started doing WordPress. And some WordPress hosts will automatically improve your WordPress software when needed.

There are two main sorts of WordPress hosting – shared WordPress hosting and managed WordPress hosting. I’ll discuss each in depth below.

Do you need WordPress hosting to run WordPress?

No. WordPress’ minimum requirements are fairly insignificant. All you need is a bunch with PHP version 5.2.4 or better and MySQL 5.0.15 or older to run WordPress. In plain English, therefore that every host is technically that can handle WordPress.

But that doesn’t signify all hosts are equal on the subject of running WordPress. I mean, technically eating Soylent Green daily for the rest of your lifetime will provide you the many nutrition you’ll want to live. But that doesn’t mean it’s the very best recipe for the happy life!

So, in order to go beyond just “hosting a WordPress site”, an excellent WordPress hosting may help you run WordPress better.

Looking into what exactly is WordPress hosting, our sister-site, CodeInWP, ran a survey of WordPress online marketers and found that those web owners who hosted with WordPress-optimized hosts reported better overall satisfaction making use of their host across quite a few metrics.

What is shared WordPress hosting?

As I mentioned, you’ll typically see 2 kinds of WordPress hosting during your search:

Shared WordPress hosting (often just shortened to “WordPress hosting”)
Managed WordPress hosting
Shared WordPress hosting is practically always the cheaper of the two options.

With shared WordPress hosting, your blog will “share” a server along with other websites. Your server it’s still performance-optimized for WordPress, you merely won’t get it all to yourself.

In addition for the performance tweaks, you’ll buy access to some form of a one-click WordPress installer. Honestly, this isn’t a large draw because cPanel (situated on most hosts) already incorporates a one-click WordPress installer. However, some shared WordPress hosts goes a step further and provide the option of pre-installing WordPress.

Finally, some WordPress hosts will offer you to automatically get some new WordPress software. Sometimes they’re going to even update your plugins and themes too! Keeping your WordPress site updated is a vital security measure, causeing this to be feature actually quite important.

You will find some shared WordPress hosts that offer even more WordPress-specific features, however the above are virtually the base standard.

Shared WordPress hosts typically offer steep reduced prices for your first billing cycle. After that, prices jump back to normal. For a billing cycle, you could pay as few as $3-4 monthly. After a cycle, you’ll typically pay from $7-10. Remember – those are merely starting prices – higher tier shared WordPress plans run more costly.

What is managed WordPress hosting?

If shared WordPress hosting is usually a clean 3-star hotel, managed WordPress hosting is often a 5-star resort with beachfront views.

In addition to everything available from shared hosting, managed WordPress hosting typically offers:

Faster speeds. Managed WordPress hosting merely offers better hardware specs, which implies a speedier WordPress site.
Server-side caching. Caching is among the biggest steps to speed your WordPress site. Typically you will need a plugin to deal with it, but managed WordPress hosts present you with better caching with zero work towards your end.
Better security. You’ll get WordPress-specific firewalls, and also regular malware scans and intrusion detection. All that jargon means a substantially more secure WordPress site.
Staging sites. Many managed hosts offer staging sites which permit you to easily test changes in your site prior to them live.
So what’s the issue? Managed WordPress hosting is more expensive. With a few exceptions like SiteGround and Flywheel, you’ll generally should pay in the variety of $25+ every month for quality managed WordPress hosting.